NEIMME: Lamps

No. 16.
STEPHENSON (GEORDIE) LAMP. 
Presented by G. Heppell.
CONSTRUCTION.
Gauze. 28 mesh iron.
6 ins high, 2 ins diameter.
Inside the gauze is a glass cylinder with a perforated copper cap.
Burner. 1/4" round wick with pricker adjustment.
Lock. Screw.
Air inlet by small holes in the bottom ring passing thence under the bottom of the glass to the flame.
The lamp is dismantled through the bottom ring.
HISTORICAL NOTE.
This is built on the pattern of the final lamp made by George Stephenson of Killingworth.
He first experimented towards the end of 1815 with candles and oil lamps which had perforated metal plate surrounding the flame and air inlet tubes through the oil vessel.
He and Davy, working quite independently, arrived at similar conclusions at approximately the same time. Whereas Davy, already a Fellow of the Royal Society though still in his early twenties, pursued his researches in a very scientific manner by laboratory tests on the character of fire damp and the passage of flame through small passages, which work led him to the conclusion that a fine mesh gauze gave the necessary protection, Stephenson carried out his tests in the pit more on the trial and error basis, and concluded that a thin plate with small holes in it gave the necessary protection. Davy read papers to learned societies on the properties of fire damp and the making of a safety lamp in the summer of 1815.
Stephenson introduced his safety lamp to the pit in November and December, 1815. Davy's lamp was first tried in the pit, in the presence of Mr. Buddle and the Rev. Hodgson, in 1816.
There was no doubting the advantages of Davy's gauze over Stephenson's perforated plate, and the substitution of a gauze for the perforated plate led to what we know as the Stephenson lamp.
This particular lamp was presented to Tristram (Kit) Heppell of West Moor Colliery (grandfather of the donor) by George Stephenson in 1818 as a mark of friendship and for assisting in the testing of safety lamp.
It was used by Kit Heppell until 1863, after which it was used by his son John till 1887.

No. 17.
STEPHENSON LAMP.
Made by Laidler, Durham.
A more recent make than No. 16. but otherwise no special features.
(See description of No. 16.)
On permanent loan to N.C.B., Graham House, Longbenton.
General Purposes Committee - 7th October 1965.
Council - 16th December 1965.

No. 18.
STEPHENSON LAMP.
Presented by R. Polsworth.
Made by Watson, Newcastle upon Tyne.
This lamp has a 1/2 inch flat wick, otherwise no special features. It was used by a coal hewer at Wideopen Colliery, 1842.
(See description of No. 16.)

   

No. 19.
STEPHENSON LAMP.
Presented by J. Straker Nesbit.
Made by Watson, Newcastle upon Tyne.
Click to view image

CONSTRUCTION.
Gauze. Copper. 28 mesh.
Burner. 1/4 ins round wick.
Body Work All of brass or copper, therefore non-magnetic. Probably a surveyor's lamp.
Lock. Screw lock through crown of lamp. Stephenson lamps are generally dismantled through the bottom ring, the oil vessel screwing on to the bottom ring. In this case (patented 1851) the oil vessel, standards and top ring are fixed together. The crown, when unlocked, hinges back when the bottom ring, in which the gauzes are fixed, can be unscrewed from the oil vessel and removed through the top ring.
(See description of No. 16.)

No. 20.
STEPHENSON LAMP (with Teale's Patent Protector).
Presented by T.C. Renwick.
Made by Teale, Manchester.
CONSTRUCTION.
Gauze. iron 28 mesh.
The internal glass has the usual Stephenson perforated copper cap, though Teale's lamps often were made without this cap, the gauze having a cap about 11/2 ins. deep instead.
Air Inlet. The air enters through three small holes in the case, above the
oil vessel. The holes are 1/2 ins x ? ins. and are covered with 
gauze. Air can also enter through the large gauze and via small
channels cut in the internal locking ring to the flame.
Lock. Screw.
Burner. 1/4 ins round wick.
The fuel vessel is packed with sponge, spirit being used with this lamp instead of oil. This type of lamp was common in Lancashire. The Protector Patent (1868) consists of a loose sleeve 1 ins long which fits closely round the tall wick tube. When this is fitted and the fuel vessel screwed home the sleeve is engaged by two hinged arms which support it. When the reservoir is unscrewed the sleeve remains stationery while the wick tube is lowered so that before the reservoir becomes detached the flame has been extinguished for lack of air. 

No. 21.
STEPHENSON LAMP. (with Hann's No. 1 patent)
Presented by T.S. Foster.
Made by Watson, Newcastle upon Tyne.
CONSTRUCTION.
The construction is typical Stephenson with the exception of a very slight modification of the air-inlet. 
The holes are ? ins. diameter and after passing through them the air passes through four long slits in the internal locking or 'following up' ring to the flame.
The top is unusual but apart from having a 3/16 ins. space between the top ring and crown for the escape of products of combustion has no noteworthy features.
Messrs. W. and E.M. Hann of the Hetton Colliery took out several patents in 1868, all of which related to modifications on air inlet to safety lamps.